This structure was built on the southeastern corner of Tahlequah town square in 1844 by James S. Pierce to house the Cherokee National Supreme Court.
Justice John Martin was the first chief justice of the Supreme Court when it was established. The Supreme and District courts both held sessions here for some time.
The building also housed the printing press of the Cherokee Advocate, the official publication of Cherokee Nation and the first newspaper in Oklahoma. It is the oldest government building in the state of Oklahoma.
The Cherokee National Supreme Court Museum features pieces in three historic areas including the Cherokee National Judicial System, the Cherokee Advocate and Phoenix newspapers and the Cherokee language with a variety of historical items including photos, stories, objects and furniture.